Balaklava harbour
On the edge of modern Sevastopol peacefully located ancient Balaclava, so many times changing it’s name. Life of this small town closely connected with it’s amazingly curved bay, which narrow throat, surrounded by cliffs. Balaclava bay - is a wonderful place for mooring, it’s covered by nature from winds and enemy’s invasion from sea and land. This fact defined interest to Balaclava from ancient times. Ancient Greek writers mentioned Sumbolon limneh( bay of symbols), Romans built here supplying base for their legions to defend interests of Empire in Taurika. Remaining of Jupiter Dolikhen`s temple, erected by Roman legionnaires, that were founded on the northern edge of Balaclava proofs this. Gorgeous ruins of towers and walls of Genoese fortress silently looking from the Kastron mountain on life of modern Balaclava. In the second half of century Genoese, using the weakness of Byzantine Empire invaded at Black Sea and founded several well developed colonies in order to maintain their power in such perspective Black Sea market and in order to control one of important ways of transcontinental trade between East and West. The main role in expansion of Genoa into Northern coast of Black Sea region played their fortress Kafa (modern Feodosia). Fortress controlled part of Crimean coast from Ay-Ya cape to Kalamita bay and farther to river Chernaya (Black). Permanent political tension at Black Sea region forced citizens to spent a lot of money on fortifications of Chembalo. On Italian’s opinion, life among orthodox Christians, Armenians, Jews and benighted tartars was closely connected with huge risk. At Statute for Genoese colonies at Black Sea, dated from 1449 A.D. stated that there was a garrison of 40 warriors. Nevertheless they failed to hold pressure of Osmans during the sultanate of Mekhmed II Fatikh (The Conqueror). After the fall of Constantinople at 1483 A.D. Genoa was forced to confess Turkish dominance at Black Sea and had to pay tax to Sultan. Turks renamed fortress and settlement to Balyk-Uve(fish nest) or from other sources Balyk-Kaya(fish rock). During the Crimean War (1854-1856) by order of Sardinian general Lamarmor some inscriptions were broken out of towers as a trophy and taken out to Italy. Excavations continue nowadays and hope bring us new facts of Balaclava past.

Balaclava Attractions

Balaclava Submarine Secret Base
Balaclava Submarine Secret Base
Submarine Secret Base or "Object 825 GTS" - underground plant for submarines' repairing and equipping started in 1957 and finished in 1961. Hollowed out in a rock and covered by 56m of reinforced concrete, submarine Base represented combined underground water channel with a dry dock, repairing workshops, torpedoes and other weapon stores. To enter the open sea there was an exit in the North side of the mountain. In a case of direct nuclear attack the object could resist a direct hit till 100 kilotons power - thick waterproof doors could be closed and the plant was able to exist autonomously for 3 years, consisting 3000 people - the whole population of Balaclava.
The total length of the tunnel is 500m, the length of gallery where the main workshops were located - 300m, the length of channel - 360m, the width 12 m and depth - not less 7 m. In the gallery 7 standard submarines could be located.
Chembalo Fortress
Chembalo Fortress
Remains of medieval Genoa fortress Chembalo tower on East cape (Serf mountain) are above the entrance to Balaclava bay. It was built by Genoeses in the first half of XIV century. The Crimean khan has concluded the peace treaty with genoeses in 1380. It has recognized behind them the right of possession of a fortress. From now on it began to be called in Genoa documents Chembalo. In 1433 the fortress has been seized by Mangup princedom (Feodoro), but in June of the next year the Genoa squadron under the command of Karlo Lomelino with a six-thousand soldiers army has approached Balaclava bay and after a fierce battle has exempted Chembalo. In summer 1475 Chembalo, as well as other Genoa colonies in Crimea, were grasped by Turks. Now on Serf mountain we can see the remains of defensive and retaining walls and four towers.

Balaclava weather forecast

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